I encountered a very strange problem in SharePoint last week. The search was working okay in every web application but one.
the indexing process was working all right, the method, crawler had no errors.
I tried over and over every way I know to make it work. The strange thing was the advanced search was able to return results if you select the file name as a managed property.
I suspected that the problem could be Internet explorer but after getting the same "no results were found" screen with google chrome I stopped suspecting from IE.
It then hit me, that I was able to run the search without problems on the server. At first I thought it was a permission problem and the users were not permitted to see the search results. but nope!
I was able to return search results on the server with my username so I came up to realize that the search results were differing / varying from computer to computer. The first thing I suspected was internet explorer..again!!
and I finally found this brilliant blog post which rescued me from this rumble!
and here is my technet forum post which did not really helped at all :)